Time as the simultaneity of the plurality of times becomes the philosophical basis of the cyclical nature of human history.
Today, temples have been built in each village at their own expense and with their own hands.
Thus, all this gives grounds to conclude that in 1939-1970 the population of Western and Central Ukraine played a significant role in creating the economic potential of Donbass, preserving Ukrainian spirituality. Descendants of these migrants have become indigenous “Donetsk” and continue the labor and cultural traditions of the region.
The first settlers arrived in Donbass from Western Ukraine, Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia in 1939-1940, when in order to eliminate unemployment there began to recruit able-bodied people in the industrial regions of the republic, especially in the Donbass coal industry, where labor shortages were most acute. This process took place with some difficulties: recruitment activities were carried out in a very short time, there was no differentiated approach to the employment of migrants, did not always meet the appropriate level of social and living conditions, does not take into accountThere is also linguistic discomfort and their deep religiosity is characteristic of Western Ukrainians, Poles, and Jews.
However, despite these shortcomings, some residents of Western Ukraine, Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia remained in the Donbass and made a significant contribution to the formation of its industrial potential, the preservation of the spiritual traditions of Ukrainians.
During the German occupation of Donbass, people from Western Ukraine took part in the national resistance movement and actions of the Ukrainian cultural revival in the region. After the liberation of the region in the fall of 1943, the mobilization of workers for the reconstruction of industrial facilities from Poltava, Kamyanets-Podilsky and other regions of Ukraine began.
In the postwar and 1950s, the solution to the personnel problem in Donbass was solved by demobilization from the Soviet army, the arrival of able-bodied people from Western, https://123helpme.me/a-tree-grows-in-brooklyn/ Central Ukraine and other regions under the system of labor recruitment, and public appeals. The population of Donbass was also replenished by Western Ukrainians deported from Poland.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the importance of organizational recruitment and public appeals from other oblasts declined sharply: as the population of Donetsk Oblast increased, the authorities considered opportunities to provide the national economy with labor at the expense of their own personnel reserves. However, even in these years, immigrants from Western and Central Ukraine arrived, who took part in the development of the economic potential of Donbass, the preservation of the spiritual traditions of the Ukrainian people.
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Postmodern model of the world. Abstract
The abstract considers the postmodern model of the world in Ukrainian and world interpretations
Postmodernism (since the 1970s) has become a leader in the new post-industrial society. The turn from modernism to postmodernism is associated with the epoch-making replacement of Eurocentrism by global polycentrism, the emergence of a postcolonial world. Criticism by I. Prigogine and his Brussels school of the classical scientific picture as a realm of total determinism and causality, as well as quantum-relativistic nonclassical natural science contributes to the formation of ideas about post-nonclassical science as a probabilistic system with a low coefficient of probability corresponding to the world. a set of nonlinear processes.
Thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes, the synergetic theory of dissipative structures, which substantiates the concept of the emergence of order from dynamic chaos as a potential supercomplicated order, influenced the establishment of holistic, holistic thinking. Growth points of new knowledge arise only at the junction of sciences. The idea of the value of the ecological industry, the human quality of science is gradually being formed.
In post-industrial, post-colonial society, traditional values - power, money, production – are being deconstructed, and information is becoming the most important commodity. The development of cybernetics and systems research leads to a change in the standard of order from “mechanism” to “organism” capable of dynamics and complications, to the continuation of internal processes after the cessation of external influences. The degree of its orderliness is the information that ensures the stability of the mobile system for some time.
The synergetic picture of the world is formed in the age of personal computers, mass television and video, the Internet, multinational corporations and state associations, single currencies. Postmodernism marks the transition from anthropocentrism to universalism with religious, cultural, and ecological ecumenism.
Characteristic features of postmodernism are:
decanonization of traditional values, deconstruction of the aesthetic subject, stylistic syncretism, intertextuality, citation as a method of artistic creativity, fragmentation and the principle of montage, irony, parody, hedonism, aestheticization of the ugly, mixing of high and low genres, dramatization of all spheres of cultural reproduction, focus on consumer aesthetics, borrowing the principles of information technology.
The culture of postmodernism combines tolerance, pluralism, openness, anti-totalitarianism as a denial of power over nature and the individual, and at the same time – the loss of values, emotionality, cynicism, superficiality, aesthetic secondary.
The reaction of postmodernism to the modernist concept of the world as chaos is the development of this chaos, its transformation into a human environment. If the foundation of the classical tradition was imagery, hierarchy of values, subjectivity, then postmodernism is based on the external “completion” of construction, anti-hierarchy, objectivity. If the ideal of modernism was the artist’s freedom of expression, then the post-modernist, convinced of the chaos of the surrounding information world, prefers to manipulate already known foreign codes. In postmodernism, the avant-garde attitude to novelty is opposed by the desire to master the experience of world culture by quoting it ironically.
Postmodernism openly states that the text does not reflect reality, but creates a new reality (reality is not revealed, there are only texts). Perception of the world as a grand dump of accumulated artifacts, traditions, images, styles, provided that there is no coordinate system, a fundamental hierarchy of values, turns the literary text into a random bricolage, which postulates chaos as a way of organization.
Forms of pastiche (potpourri, collage), palimpsest (layering of different texts), hypertext (analog of computer literature that can be read from anywhere, replacing events, characters) are models of coexistence in different cultural systems, in a pluralistic world (novel “The Name of the Rose” by the Italian V. Eco, the novel “Khazar Dictionary” by the Serbian M. Pavich, the works “Roman” and “Norma” by the Russian V. Sorokin). The famous garden ensemble “Little Sparta” (architect J. Finley) in the ironic synthesis of a Japanese rock garden and a European romantic park with pavilions and ruins creates a union of morality and entertainment, art and tourism in the context of general ecology.
Researchers note that Ukrainian postmodernism is a secondary phenomenon to Western, as it does not grow on the basis of global informatization of society. Its space of transformations is primarily the revived contents of the national tradition, in particular baroque, classicist, romantic, avant-garde. For the activities of literary groups Bu-Ba-Bu, Lu-Go-Sad, “New Degeneration”, “Lost Letter” is characterized by carnival clowning, in which ironic transformation is subject to established values. The heroes of Yu. Andrukhovych’s novels “Recreation”, “Moscoviada”, “Perversion” of O. Zabuzhko’s books profane the world rather than the inability to understand each other, their weaving of words is rather a way to hide the emptiness of their everyday life. However, the same irony creates a life-affirming element of the folk carnival, as in the play “Aeneid” in the theater. I. Franko in Kyiv.
In postmodernism, the feeling that “the future was yesterday” intensifies: images and forms emerge from the depths of the past, which are recomposed by contemporary artists. Interpretations displace innovations. Time as the simultaneity of the plurality of times becomes the philosophical basis of the cyclical nature of human history. The idea of time as a reversible continuum, in which the past and the future coexist, revived interest in old buildings in the historic centers of cities, slowed down the process of their destruction.