M. Drahomanov, Kyiv Academy of Hairdressing).

M. Drahomanov, Kyiv Academy of Hairdressing).

Let us ask the question: why is it that Ukraine, the richest in natural resources, with the most powerful agricultural and industrial sectors and intellectual potential, is the poorest country among all post-communist countries and one of the last in terms of the pace and effectiveness of political and economic reforms?

The effectiveness of reforms depends on the mentality and consolidation of the population. In the now independent post-Soviet European countries, the mentality of the population is divided into a nationally conscious part that strives to strengthen statehood, protect national interests, and a part that in a poor life prefers to return to Soviet times, to the standard of living of the totalitarian regime. …

In the presence of a more or less powerful nationally conscious elite that cares for the interests of the state, the population of each, say, of the Baltic states, supported the national democratic movements and brought them to power. In these countries, democratic laws were passed by democratic parliaments elected by the democratic electorate. Therefore, the popular governments paid attention, first of all, to the formation of a nationally conscious electorate.

It was formed by granting citizenship to nationally conscious members of the people, taking into account the fact that in Soviet times, according to communist ideology, a single “Soviet people” was created by relocating national minorities to the east, to the Asian part of the USSR, and Russians to the west. on the territory of national republics. By focusing on nationally conscious citizens, the Baltic States have managed to avoid confrontation between antagonistic political forces in the states and parliaments of these states, and at the same time avoid blocking democratic and market reforms and implementing them “shockingly” in a short time.

Let’s find out what characteristics the mentality of the country’s citizens must meet in order to successfully carry out reforms and build a society with a decent standard of living for its citizens. The main ones that contribute to the identification of residents with the citizenship of a particular country and the formation of a competitive nation are:

recognition and respect for national symbols – the Anthem, Emblem and Flag (and thus recognition of the Constitution and legislation of this country, the rights of this nation); knowledge and perception of the historical past of the country, the culture of the indigenous ethnic group in order to strengthen the nation; knowledge and use of the state language – the language of the indigenous ethnic group – primarily in order to consolidate citizens into a nation, as well as a means of communication; the spiritual unity of the people through a single faith that contributes to the formation and strengthening of the nation; the minimum qualification of immigrants in the country in order to adapt to the social and ethnic-cultural environment is substantiated.

These are the principles of democratic ideology, which, according to the laws of dialectics, are antagonistic to Soviet-communist principles. That this is so can be seen by observing the relations between the deputies of the democratic and communist parties in the Ukrainian parliament.

Let’s ask the question, which of the two antagonistic ideologies – totalitarian-communist or radical-democratic – does the current youth prefer? The answer will allow us to assess the prospects and strategy for the development of Ukrainian society. The distribution of young people’s answers to a set of sociological questionnaire questions, which reflects the meaning of these characteristics of the citizen, also gives an idea of ​​the mentality of the electorate in the near future, and hence the distribution of political forces in parliament and other authorities.

To this end, the staff of the laboratory of social psychology of the Institute of Psychology. G. Kostyuk, the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine in 2001 conducted a survey of high school students and students of some educational institutions in Kyiv. Note that the sociological questionnaire contains a number of pairs of antagonistic ideological and political statements. The respondent had to choose the one from each pair that corresponded to his political position, because antagonistic opposites exclude intermediate, compromise positions. In the case of non-antagonistic contradictions, compromise positions are possible.

The following tables show the results of a survey of high school students (241 people in secondary schools # 57 and # 288 and boarding schools for visually impaired children # 11) and students (679 people from the Faculty of Sociology and Psychology of Taras Shevchenko National University, Kyiv Institute of Municipal Management and business, Ukrainian State University of Food Technologies, National Pedagogical University named after M. Drahomanov, Kyiv Academy of Hairdressing).

We will analyze the results of a survey of young respondents on some of the above characteristics regarding identification with Ukrainian citizenship.

Your attitude to state symbols:

Flag, Emblem, Anthem of Ukraine:

Starshock. (%)

Students (%)

respectful, they correspond to my beliefs; I know the Hymn, I perform it at celebrations

respectful, but the Hymn I do not know

contemptuous, they do not correspond to my beliefs

it doesn’t matter, they mean nothing to me

other

49

21

four

14

9

21

47

five

19

6

 

In general, 70% of respondents showed respect for state symbols, this figure is slightly better among high school students. But one in five students and one in seven high school students are indifferent to state symbols, and one in twenty is contemptuous. Such answers are not typical of the youth of democratic nations.

The language issue is important in the formation of every nation. First of all, the importance of the native language of the indigenous population as a means of consolidating citizens into a single social organism, along with its use as a means of communication.

The principle of use in a life and state establishments corresponds to your conviction:

Starshock. (%)

Students (%)

state Ukrainian language

Russian language along with Ukrainian

70

thirty

39

61

 

When asked about the use of the state Ukrainian language in everyday life and in state institutions, the majority of high school students (70% vs. 30%) prefer the Ukrainian language, but less than half of students (only 39% vs. 61 %) hold the same opinion. This result can be explained by the fact that young people are not aware of the importance of the state status of language for the consolidation and formation of the nation (indigenous ethnic and ethnic minorities) as a subject of international activities for world culture and civilization, and consider language only as a means of obtaining information. educational process.

The level of mentality of young people in Central and Eastern Europe regarding the awareness of the dominant role of the indigenous language in the formation of the nation is significantly higher than in Ukraine. Such a sharpened attitude to the national language is natural for countries that for centuries had their own state, their own nationally conscious elite, such as Russia, France, Poland or Hungary. In Ukraine, on the other hand, education has been provided in Russian for centuries, and for generations the Ukrainian language has been treated as a “peasant” non-elite, inferior.

The rejection of the native language from the indigenous population was carried out by tsarist decrees, and then by Soviet decrees, and most importantly – the extermination or exile of the national elite and the significant resettlement of Russians in Ukraine. As international relations grow, the function of language as a means of communication in all countries is declining, but as a means of consolidating the nation, it remains or grows. The spiritual disunity of the people, which at the same time constitutes the electorate of representatives for the formation of power, is one of the most important reasons for the ineffective reform and democratization of Ukrainian society.

The proportions given in the table above are almost the same for the choice of language of instruction: high school students prefer the Ukrainian language, and this figure is higher than the previous one (78% vs. 70%), and students – Russian.

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What language would you like to study?

Starshock.

(%)

Students

(%)

in Ukrainian

in Russian

78

22

39

61

 

This is primarily a consequence of providing students with mostly Ukrainian-language textbooks and literature, and students with mostly Russian-language ones.

Further findings of the youth survey follow from the analysis of the empirical data presented in the table below. In general, 4/5 of respondents prefer democratic guidelines on democratic (national, state-interest) ideas, political pluralism, democracy, publicity of political decisions of government structures, legitimacy of the opposition in parliament and statements of socio-political protest, as well as economic principles of private property, market economy, social protection.

The political principles correspond to your convictions:

 

Top row: high school students (%)

 

 Bottom line: students (%)

formation of the Ukrainian nation as a subject of international law on the basis of the ideology of statehood and national interests

85 and 15

liquidation of nations by assimilation with the Russian nation on the basis of the ideology of Russification, accusations of nationalism movements for national rights

81 and 19

multiparty formation of power of different ideological directions

80 and 20

one-party system: the leading role of the Communist Party

80 and 20

democracy (democracy, popular election of central and local authorities and their accountability, governance through referendums)

80 and 20

totalitarianism (full control of the state in accordance with the dominant ideology over all spheres of life, the prohibition of dissent)

81 and 19

publicity (submission to the media of information of various ideological and political directions, public control over the activities of public authorities)

80 and 20

secrecy (activities of the authorities, control of censorship of media information in accordance with the prevailing communist ideology)

85 and 15

legitimacy of the opposition in parliament, diversity of views, government-sanctioned pickets, rallies, demonstrations as a form of socio-political protest

72 and 28

bans on the opposition, the dissident movement, and the resolution of political and non-political disputes by the party committees of the Communist Party of Ukraine

79 and 21

use of the state Ukrainian language in everyday life and state institutions

70 and 30

use of the Russian language along with Ukrainian in everyday life and state institutions

39 and 61

private property of various types (personal, corporate, collective, municipal, etc.)

77 and 23

national (state) ownership of real estate, property, land and means of production

81 and 19

market management of market participants (individuals and legal entities)

72 and 28

command and administrative management of production and distribution of products

77 and 23

purchase of housing – apartments, private houses at their own expense

59 and 41

obtaining free small apartments

67 and 33

         
By |2021-02-19T12:22:48+01:00July 23rd, 2020|blog|
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