# For example, the following homework: “Submit a task in the form of a picture.”

Therefore, the homework system should reflect all the content lines of the program defined by the State Standard of Primary General Education, in particular:

properties and relations of objects. Counting; numbers and actions on them; numerical and letter expressions; equations and inequalities; geometric shapes and their properties. Geometric bodies; measuring geometric quantities and calculating their values; quantities and units of measurement of quantities.

The procedural component of students ‘learning activities is aimed at forming students’ various ways of learning activities. The system of homework should provide for the mastery of these methods, and for this the teacher should focus on algorithms, rules for performing educational tasks, and so on. For example, recall the algorithm of students’ reasoning when solving the problem:

Read and study the content of the problem. Think about what is being asked in the problem. Think about what you need to know to answer the problem. Make a plan for solving the problem. Solve the problem. Check the solution of the problem.

The system of independent problem solving at home should provide instructions that would reflect the individual components of the algorithm. For example, the following homework: “Submit a task in the form of a picture.” This task is aimed at developing the ability to study the problem, to imagine its life situation. Or the following instruction: “Compose a similar problem with other numbers and solve it.” This task involves teaching students to check the awareness of actions, to understand the generalization of tasks as a reflection of reality.

In addition to the subject methods of performing tasks, students must master the educational and cognitive skills, which in the words of O. Savchenko are the “alphabet of thinking.”

Homework such as: “Compare …”, “Formulate questions …”, “Write a conclusion with the help of letters” should be systematic. Only under the conditions of consistency and purposefulness in the selection of tasks aimed at the formation of general cognitive skills, it is possible to achieve one of the most important functions of homework – to teach children to learn.

Homework is an independent work of a student. In independent work, the student must learn to perform all the operations that he originally performed under the guidance of a teacher, and now must repeat them in relation to himself (set a goal, plan, monitor, evaluate). Thus, students’ independent work is a multifaceted pedagogical category that is subject to appropriate classification. Let’s name the main approaches to the classification of students’ independent work, which should also apply to homework.

1. Depending on the pedagogical purpose, which is pursued in conducting independent work, they can be divided into two main groups: teaching and testing work.

Educational works are divided into:

work related to preparing children for the perception of new educational material; work related to the acquisition of new knowledge; works aimed at expanding and deepening the acquired knowledge; training work, the purpose of which is to consolidate previously acquired knowledge, skills and abilities.

Inspection works are divided into:

Test homework can be as follows: “Check yourself!”, “Choose and solve the examples in the calculation of which you made the most mistakes”, etc.

2. Independent works can be divided into types and depending on the nature of the activities they require from students:

are based on imitation, on reproduction by pupils of actions of the teacher and his reasoning; those that require children to independently apply the knowledge, skills and abilities previously acquired under the guidance of a teacher in conditions similar to those in which they were formed; the same, but in conditions that are more or less different from those that took place in the formation of knowledge, skills and abilities used by children during the task; so-called creative works, which require students to show independence in the attitude of the question and find a way to solve it, independently conduct the necessary observations, independently obtain a conclusion, independent selection of material necessary for the task.

3. Independent works can be divided depending on the educational material on which they are conducted. Regarding the teaching of mathematics in primary school on this basis are different: work aimed at the formation of basic mathematical concepts, work related to learning to solve mathematical problems, mathematical examples, practical work (measuring, etc.).

4. Independent works may differ in the form in which they are organized. It is possible to allocate independent works of general class (when all class will carry out the same task), group (when separate groups of pupils will carry out separate tasks), individual (in that case when each pupil receives an individual task from the teacher).

5. The division of students’ work on the teacher’s task into independent and semi-independent has also become widespread in the methodology. In this case, semi-independent is usually understood as such work, part of which is carried out with the direct participation of adults, for example: “Together with parents, measure the length of the room and calculate its area.”

The division of independent works into separate types considered by us has rather relative character. This may not be a distinction between different types of independent work on the selected feature, as is customary in any scientific classification, but only on the selection of the most significant, in terms of the selected feature, features of work in each case of its use in practice. Despite some conventionality, the above division of independent work into types still has the practical significance that helps to clarify the purpose and place of each such work in the learning process, to outline the methods that correspond to them.

Organizing homework on a systematic basis, the teacher must plan and implement all of the above types of independent work of students in the learning process, taking into account the specific conditions of this class.

A particularly important problem in the system of organizing homework of students is the individualization and differentiation of homework. The principle of systematicity in the organization of a differentiated approach to homework should be implemented on the comprehensive understanding of teachers about ways to differentiate homework.

By form: free choice of homework; individual tasks; frontal tasks, group.

By duration: short-term, long-term, periodic release from homework.

By content: by the level of independence of students (reproductive and creative), by the level of difficulties (increase or decrease in volume, complication or simplification of methods of activity).

By sources: textbook, didactic material, reference books, life experience.

In the process of individualization and differentiation of homework, the teacher must take into account the different levels of independence of younger students:

1st level – reproduction of ways of activity; 2nd level – application of the same method of activity “according to the sample”; Level 3 – performing exercises using the same method, but in new conditions that require at least a small self-searching; Level 4 – creating search situations, when the student is looking for ways to work, determines the tasks that need to be solved.

One of the important functions of students ‘homework is to promote the formation of students’ skills of self-control and self-esteem, as well as for the implementation of control and evaluation activities of the teacher. The chain that connects students’ classroom and homework is the homework test in class. Checking homework is not only supervisory but also educational.

By observing students ‘homework and checking the results of this performance, you can get a picture of students’ success. To this end, the teacher uses different types of tests in math lessons, for example:

verification and explanation of complex cases of calculation; verification with modification of the example; verification in combination with an oral account; verification is combined with the consolidation and generalization of the theory of material, etc.

As we can see, the teacher not only controls the correctness and awareness of independent work, but also consolidates, deepens or generalizes the knowledge and skills of students.

In order to form self-control during homework, the teacher can use various memos, reference books describing the methods of self-examination.

Within the framework of this article, we cannot explain the multifaceted problems of organizing students’ homework. Summarizing the above issues of homework, we tried to name a way to optimize students’ homework on the basis of regularity. In this way personal narrative topics for high school, the following problems are relevant, which the teacher must purposefully solve:

comprehensive planning of goals (educational, upbringing, developmental); individualization and differentiation of homework; teaching students the methods of educational activities, in particular the formation of students’ learning skills; selection of optimal methods and techniques for organizing homework – determining the content of homework, methods of setting and checking homework; education of students’ cognitive needs, the formation of motives for independent homework.

The school must not only equip students with knowledge, skills and abilities, but also teach them to acquire this knowledge independently, to apply it creatively in practice. To achieve this helps the implementation of all principles of learning and, in particular, the principle of systematic learning, because, as we know, the success of any activity is determined by its purposefulness, order, consistency.

Author: O. Baula

01/22/2008

## High class pedagogy

### School life … Daily series of calls, lessons, topics. A whirlwind of events, sudden joys and sorrows. The new day according to the old plan is not set, templates – as a last resort, skill – this is when it suddenly turned out

According to the outline of the program, according to the order, meeting the requirements, despite the difficulties … This is such a difficult school life! Each teacher decides for himself from whom to learn, what theories to follow, what to read. We would like the “School Business” notebook to become your assistant in solving everyday problems, a guide to the world of modern pedagogical ideas, a source of diverse and useful information about the school.